Multiple Auditory Processing Assessment (MAPA–2)
Identify children who have auditory processing disorders
Authors: Ronald L. Schow, PhD, CCC-A / J. Anthony Seikel, PhD, CCC-SLP / Jeff E. Brockett, EdD, CCC-A / Mary M. Whitaker, AuD, CCC-A
- Individual Administration
- Ages 7 through 14
- Testing Time: 30–40 Minutes
- Qualification Level B
The MAPA-2 is a comprehensive assessment of auditory processing and listening skills. It may be used as a screener to be followed by other behavioral or physiological tests or it may be used for a preliminary diagnosis in the auditory area. The test is administered via CD and can be used in a clinical setting or a sound booth.
The MAPA-2 includes eight different subtests in the three domains (monaural, temporal, and binaural) that ASHA and AAA recommend for auditory processing assessment along with the Scale of Auditory Behaviors, a 12-item parent or teacher completed questionnaire of listening behaviors.
Monaural: Evaluate an individual's ability to use low redundancy information.
- Monaural-Selective Attention Test (MSAAT): Assesses an individual's ability to recognize monosyllabic words with and without competing background noise of high-interest speech
- Speech in Noise for Children (SINCA): Assesses an individual's ability to recognize monosyllabic word pairs presented with competing pink noise at progressively decreasing signal-to-noise ratios
Temporal: Evaluate an individual's ability to use acoustic information over time.
- Tap Test: Assesses an individual's ability to recognize and label an auditory pattern
- Pitch Pattern Test: Assesses an individual's ability to use cues including rate and pattern and to label what is heard
Binaural: Evaluate an individual's ability to use unique information presented simultaneously to each ear.
- Dichotic Digits: Assesses an individual's ability to recognize digit sequences when digit pairs are presented simultaneously to each ear
- Competing Sentences: Assesses an individual's ability to recognize more complex language sequences presented simultaneously to each ear
Supplemental Subtests: Additional tests that can be used to assess an individual's skill in the temporal area.
- Duration Pattern Test: Assesses an individual's ability to use cues including rate and pattern and to label what is heard
- Gap Detection Test: Assesses an individual's temporal resolution abilities using intervals of varying length between stimuli
- Scale of Auditory Behaviors: An informal, 12-item, parent-or teacher-completed questionnaire of listening behaviors.
The MAPA-2 was standardized on a nationally representative sample of 748 children and adolescents.
Administration and Scoring
The full MAPA-2 can be administered in about 30-40 minutes. Scoring is easy and straightforward. Raw scores are reported as scaled scores and percentile ranks for subtests, and as standard scores and percentile ranks for the Domains and the Overall score.
Additional qualitative analyses of the SINCA, Dichotic Digits, and Gap Detection subtests are provided.
SINCA Estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio estimates the amount of back-ground noise the child can locate.
DICHOTIC ADVANTAGE determines whether the child demonstrates an expected dichotic advantage. A lower score may suggest an APD.
The GAP DETECTION Estimated Gap Threshold determines the shortest time interval in which an individual can hear two consecutively presented tones.
Significant changes in scores over time can be documented with the Reliable Change Index.
The MAPA-2 can be administered either in a clinical audiometry environment (sound booth and audiometer) or by using standard circumaural headphones and an audio player. Headphones with increased performance in low frequencies and earbud style transducers are NOT recommended because they could alter the outcomes of testing.
Reliability and Validity
- Cronbach's Alpha values ranged from 0.71 to 0.93 for the Domains and Overall scores.
- Test-retest correlations ranged from 0.82 to 0.98 for the Domains and Overall scores.
- Factor analyses support the three domain structure of the MAPA-2.
- Validity studies demonstrated that the MAPA-2 is able to identify listening challenges in individuals with ADHD, auditory processing disorder, learning disability, and language impairment.
Validity of the Multiple Auditory Processing Assessment–2: A Test of Auditory Processing Disorder
Results from MAPA-2 normative data provide important evidence for the construct of APD. Additionally, the use of the ASHA diagnostic criteria (index test) with the MAPA-2 yields very acceptable sensitivity and specificity for APD. This allows the identification of specific (domain) auditory deficits along with functional questionnaire findings that can lead to helping children receive appropriate specific remediation.
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