Test of Orthographic Competence – 2 (TOC-2)
Authors: Nancy Mather, PhD / Rhia Roberts, PhD / Donald D. Hammill, EdD / Elizabeth A. Allen, PhD
- Orthographic skills
- Individual/Group Administration
- Ages 8 through 24
- Testing Time: 30 to 40 minutes
- Qualification Level B
The Test of Orthographic Competence-Second Edition (TOC-2) assesses aspects of the English writing system that are integral to proficient reading and writing. These aspects include letters, spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, and special symbols. The TOC-2 now has a single form that can be administered to individuals or groups. Normed on a national representative sample of 1,512 individuals, it yields standard scores and percentiles for both subtests and composites. Classroom teachers, special education teachers, reading specialists, school psychologists, speech pathologists, or any other professionals with some training in standardized test administration can use the TOC-2.
The TOC-2 has six subtests:
- Sight Spelling
- Homophone Spelling
- Word Scramble
- Letter Choice
The TOC-2 has five composites. These composites are derived from combining the results of the subtests to achieve stronger and better indices of performance.
- Orthographic Knowledge (OK)
- Conventions (CO)
- Spelling Accuracy (SA)
- Spelling Fluency (SF)
- Spelling Efficiency (SE)
Reliability and Validity
The TOC-2 was normed on a demographically representative national sample of 1,512 individuals. Extensive studies of test bias showed the TOC-2 has little or no bias as to gender, race, or ethnicity.
Criterion-prediction validity studies demonstrated validity of the new subtests and composites. Studies of construct validity indicated that the TOC-2's internal structure is sound and results are valid for a wide variety of subgroups as well as the general population.