Peabody Developmental Motor Scales - 2nd Edition (PDMS-2)
Authors: M. Rhonda Folio, EdD / Rebecca R. Fewell, PhD
The PDMS-2 Complete Kit is an in-depth assessment of a child's motor development. The six subtests (Reflexes, Stationary, Locomotion, Object Manipulation, Grasping, Visual-Motor Integration) yield two composite scores (Gross Motor and Fine Motor) and an overall score (Total Motor Quotient). All activities are age-appropriate and reflect the expected maturation of the motor system during early development. It is intended to be used by occupational therapists, physical therapists, psychologists, early intervention specialists, and other professionals interested in the early motor development of young children.
The Complete Kit contains the Peabody Motor Activities Program (PMAP) which is the instruction and treatment program for the PDMS-2. After a child's motor skills have been assessed and the examiner has completed all sections of the Profile-Summary Form, the examiner selects units from the PMAP to use to facilitate the child's development in specific skills areas.
- Reflexes: This 8-item subtest measures a child's ability to automatically react to environmental events. Because reflexes typically become integrated by the time a child is 12 months old, this subtest is only given to children birth through 11 months.
- Stationary: This 30-item subtest measures a child's ability to sustain control of his or her body within its center of gravity and retain equilibrium.
- Locomotion: This 89-item subtest measures a child's ability to move from one place to another. The actions measured include crawling, walking, running, hopping, and jumping forward.
- Object Manipulation: This 24-item subtest measures a child's ability to manipulate balls. Examples of the actions measured include catching, throwing, and kicking. Because these skills are not apparent until a child has reached the age of 11 months, this subtest is only given to children ages 12 months and older.
- Grasping: This 26-item subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her hands. It begins with the ability to hold an object with one hand and progresses up to actions involving the controlled use of the fingers of both hands.
- Visual-Motor Integration: This 72-item subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her visual perceptual skills to perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks such as reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and copying designs.
- Fine Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the small muscle systems: Grasping (all ages), Visual-Motor Integration (all ages).
- Gross Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the large muscle systems:
Reflexes (birth-11 months only)
Stationary (all ages)
Locomotion (all ages)
Object Manipulation (12 months and older)
- Total Motor Quotient: This composite is formed by a combination of the results of the gross and fine motor subtests. Because of this, it is the best estimate of overall motor abilities.
Administration and Scoring
The PDMS-2 is individually administered and can be completed in 45 - 60 minutes. Profile sheets allow the examiner to show which tasks the child has mastered and their relative strengths/weaknesses. Scores are reported as standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents.