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 Assessments — Reading

Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test - Third Edition (LAC-3)

Author: Patricia C. Lindamood, Phyllis Lindamood

  • Reading Readiness-Phonological Awareness
  • 5-0 through 18-11
  • Individual Administration
  • Norm Referenced
  • Qualification Level B

The LAC-3 is an individually administered, norm-referenced assessment that measures an individual's ability to perceive and conceptualize speech sounds using a visual medium. Because of the importance of these auditory skills to reading, the results are helpful for speech-language pathologists, special educators, and reading specialists. The LAC-3 also measures the cognitive ability to distinguish and manipulate sounds, which success in reading and spelling requires. This third edition of the LAC has been improved considerably. Three new categories of items that relate to multisyllabic processing have been added. The availablility of standard scores for the LAC-3 total score is a desirable new feature.

Characteristics and Improvements of the LAC-3

Normative data--Standard scores, percentile ranks, and age and grade equivalents are now provided for individuals between the ages of 5-0 through 18-11.

More complexity--The number of items in Category II has been increased from 12 to 18. The syllables have been extended from 4 phonemes to 5. This category is now titled Tracking Phonemes (Monosyllables).

Multisyllabic processing--Three new categories of items have been added which extend the test into the multisyllable level of processing. These subtests are titled Counting Syllables (Multisyllables), Tracking Syllables (Multisyllables), and Tracking Syllables and Phonemes (Multisyllables).

More item analysis--All items on the test were evaluated using both conventional item analysis and the new differential item functioning analysis.

More reliability--Reliability coefficients are provided for subgroups of the normative sample (e.g., African Americans, Hispanic Americans, gender groups) as well as for the entire normative sample.

More validity studies--Many new validity studies have been conducted. Special attention has been devoted to showing that the test is valid for a wide variety of subgroups, as well as for the general population.

Population characteristics--Characteristics of the total normative sample relative to socioeconomic factors, gender, ethnicity, and other critical variables are the same as those reported for 2001 in the Statistical Abstract of the United States (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001) and, therefore, are representative of the current U.S. population.

Absence of bias--Studies showing the absence of gender, racial, linguistic, and ethnic bias have been added.

Audio CD--An all new audio CD demonstrating correct pronunciation and administration of test items is provided with the complete test kit.



Item No.






LAC-3 Kit: Examiner's Manual, 25 Examiner Record Booklets, 24 Blocks, 1 Audio CD, and 6 Felts, all in a sturdy storage box.


Components (Sold Separately)

Item No.






25 Examiner Record Forms


See Also... (Sold Separately)


Item No. / Product Title



Test of Orthographic Competence (TOC)



Phonological and Print Awareness Scale (PPA)



Test of Reading Comprehension - 4 (TORC-4)



Feifer Assessment of Reading (FAR)



Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency - 2 (TOSWRF-2)



Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency - 2 (TOSCRF-2)


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