Test of Written Language - 4 (TOWL-4)
Author: Donald D. Hammill, EdD / Stephen C. Larsen, PhD
- Written Expression
- Individual / Group Administration
- Ages 9-0 through 17-11
The fourth edition of Test of Written Language (TOWL-4) is a norm-referenced, comprehensive diagnostic test of written expression that may be used to: identify students who write poorly; determine students' particular strengths and weaknesses in various writing abilities; document students' progress in special writing programs; measure writing for research.
The TOWL-4 features new colored stimulus pictures and has two forms (Form A and Form B), each of which represents conventional, linguistic, and conceptual aspects of writing. Of the seven subtests, five (vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, sentence logic, and combining sentences) use a contrived format and two (contextual conventions and story composition) use a spontaneous format. The issued of sensitivity, specificity, false positives, and bias have been addressed.
Administration and Scoring
The TOWL-4 can be administered to individuals or groups in 60-90 minutes. Nationally stratified norms (from 2505 individuals) are now age-based and grade-based. Individual subtest scores are combined to provide three composites: Overall Writing, Contrived Writing, and Spontaneous Writing. Scales scores, standard scores, percentile ranks, age-equivalents, and grade-equivalents are provided.